"Cities are socially determined in their forms and in their processes. Some of their determinants are structural, linked to deep trends of social evolution that transcend geographic or local singularity. Others are historically and culturally specific. And all are played out, and twisted, by social actors that oppose their interests and their values, to project the city of their dreams and to fight the space of their nightmares."
— Manuel Castells in European Cities, the Informational Society, and the Global Economy